Disha Publications presents you with a detailed analysis of Union Budget 2021. The analysis holds various terms and concepts that will be useful for UPSC aspirant. You can either download the document or watch the author Live in Zoom Webinar
Answer 1: Eutrophication is characterized by excessive plant and algal growth due to the increased availability of one or more limiting growth factors needed for photosynthesis, such as sunlight, carbon dioxide, and nutrient fertilizers. Eutrophication occurs naturally over centuries as lakes age and are filled in with sediments. However, human activities have accelerated the rate and extent of eutrophication through both point-source discharges and non-point loadings of limiting nutrients. Eutrophication leads to significant changes in water quality. It lowers the value of surface waters for the industrial and recreational uses. The algae growing in long strands often twine around boat propellers and make boating difficult. The eutrophication in an aquatic ecosystem also causes significant changes in biodiversity. The eutrophication causes an increase in plant and animal biomass, frequency of algal blooms, growth of rooted plants, and decreases the species diversity. Due to eutrophication, an increase in turbidity and anoxic conditions occurs. Because of the high density of aquatic organisms in a eutrophic system, there is often a lot of competition for resources. The following is a list of methods that can be used to control eutrophication: • Planting vegetation along streambeds to slow erosion and absorb nutrients. • Controlling application amount and timing of fertilizer. • Controlling runoff from feedlots. • The best, easiest, and most efficient way to prevent eutrophication is by preventing excess nutrients from reaching water bodies. This can be done in a number of ways, the simplest of which is just being aware of the chemicals and fertilizers that we are using.
Answer: Because of social distancing and the lockdown, businesses are mostly shut and only a few people are working. India announced a nationwide lockdown. Migrants have an important role in India's economy. Among the most visible economic impacts of the lockdown has been a massive reverse migration of workers to villages. Reverse migration also entails loss of income for migrant workers. Evidence suggests that the number is likely to be far more than millions. For example, the Uttar Pradesh government alone was looking at expanding daily employment under the MGNREGA by 3 million in March 2020. India's workforce was already under distress even before the pandemic. The sudden exodus of migrants who have returned to their villages from the cities will push wages down even more. This will further squeeze earnings and subsequently demand. Weakness in demand may generate additional headwinds for revival of economic activity even in urban areas. Some measures to help the migrants: Local employment avenues should be made available to migrants Make agriculture a viable profession- make better irrigation facilities available to them along with better payment for the produces Provide local artisans online haats- so that they don't face problem of searching right market for higher/genuine price for their products. Proper implementation of existing policies/schemes- related to MSP, APMC, e-NaM, etc. Now with the rolling economy, it will be a gargantuan task for the government to assure the migrants a regular and respectful livelihood, but it is them who are the backbone of unorganized sector and hence of Indian economy. So it will be a necessary step by the government at central and state both to help this downhearted section of our society.
Answer: India's internal security challenges, since decades, have also been pronouncedly sponsored and largely influenced by external machinations and subterfuge. However, it is also an accepted reality that, in recent times, external and internal threats do overlap seamlessly, apart from having multiplied in their intensity. Asymmetric and proxy wars are part of this new dynamic. Over the last 70 years, India's internal conflicts have ranged from Pakistani planned and supported insurgency, terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir and other Indian states, on-off-on internal unrest in some of India's restive North Eastern (NE) states including Assam. Additionally, persistent efforts by Pakistan's notorious spy agency, the Inter Services Intelligence (ISI), to foment communal trouble in Punjab and fan 'Khalistani' separatism, growing Naxal-Maoist Left Wing Extremism (LWE) threats in India's hinterland, occasional sectarian, communal and language tensions, organized crime, money laundering, drug trafficking and now cyber driven crimes are the major internal security challenges confronting the Indian state. That since the last 2 years or so there has also been an upsurge in undesirable extremist tendencies among some fringe elements inside India cannot be denied. Similarly insurgencies in India are abetted and supported by our adversaries and the impact of the two challenges cannot be isolated per se. In area as humongous as national security it is difficult to ascertain which of the two threats -- external or internal -- will pose greater security threat to the country going forward. But if we take nation as an organism, to fight an external adversary internal strength is prerequisite.